Clyfford Still, born on November 30, 1904, in the small town of Grandin, North Dakota, emerged as a titan of American abstract expressionism, leaving an indelible mark on the trajectory of 20th-century art. His journey, marked by a relentless pursuit of artistic integrity and a refusal to conform to convention, reveals a complex and enigmatic figure whose life and work defy easy categorization.
Early Life and Formative Years
Still's early life unfolded against the backdrop of the rugged landscapes of the American Midwest. Raised in a family of farmers, he developed an early affinity for the raw beauty and harsh realities of the natural world. His interest in art began to crystallize during his teenage years, leading him to pursue formal art education. He attended Spokane University before making the pivotal decision to move to New York City, where he enrolled at the Art Students League in 1925.
In the bustling metropolis of New York, Still found himself amidst the ferment of American modernism. Influenced by the works of early modernists like Stuart Davis and Arshile Gorky, he began to forge his artistic identity. Still's early paintings from the 1930s reflect a commitment to social realism, influenced in part by the socio-economic challenges of the Great Depression. His works from this period, such as "PH-343" and "The Washhouse," reveal a keen sensitivity to the human condition and a dedication to depicting the struggles of everyday life.
Abstract Expressionism and the New York School
The 1940s marked a transformative period in Still's career as he became associated with the burgeoning abstract expressionist movement, a pivotal force in the evolution of American art. This movement, characterized by its emphasis on spontaneity, gestural expression, and a rejection of representational forms, provided Still with a fertile ground to explore his innermost emotions on canvas.
During this time, Still's work underwent a profound shift. His compositions became increasingly abstract, characterized by bold brushstrokes, intense color contrasts, and a dynamic interplay of form and space. Works such as "PH-235" and "PH-247" from the mid-1940s exemplify Still's ability to distill complex emotions into powerful visual statements. The artist's approach to titling his works also evolved, as he began using numbers and dates instead of conventional titles, reflecting his desire to allow viewers direct access to the visual experience without the influence of preconceived notions.
In 1943, Still joined the faculty of the California School of Fine Arts (now the San Francisco Art Institute), a move that would impact the next generation of artists profoundly. His teaching style, marked by a disdain for artistic norms and a fervent belief in the importance of individual expression, influenced students such as Richard Diebenkorn and David Park.
The Triumph of the 1950s
The 1950s marked the zenith of Still's artistic career, a period during which he produced some of his most iconic and monumental works. His canvases, often of staggering proportions, displayed a raw, elemental quality, conveying a sense of the sublime and the cosmic. The sheer physicality of his paintings, exemplified in works like "1957-J No. 2" and "1951-N No. 2," captured the viewer's attention, inviting them into a visceral and emotional experience.
Notably, Still's departure from representational art allowed for a more profound exploration of the relationship between color, form, and emotion. His use of a limited color palette, often dominated by deep blacks, fiery reds, and earthy browns, contributed to the emotional intensity of his work. Each brushstroke and color choice became a deliberate expression of the artist's innermost thoughts and feelings.
The Reclusive Years and Departure from the Art World
In a bold move that would define his legacy, Still decided to sever ties with prominent galleries, including Peggy Guggenheim's Art of This Century, and withdraw from the commercial art scene in 1951. This self-imposed exile was driven by a desire to protect his artistic vision from the commercialization of the art world and to maintain control over the presentation and interpretation of his work.
This departure marked the beginning of Still's reclusive years, during which he painted prolifically but remained largely removed from the public eye. His decision to withdraw his entire body of work from public view in 1959, numbering over 800 paintings and works on paper, was an unprecedented act in the art world. Still's intention was to preserve the integrity of his oeuvre, ensuring that it would not be subjected to the whims of the market or the influence of external forces.
The Clyfford Still Museum: A Legacy Preserved
The year 1980 saw the passing of Clyfford Still, leaving behind a body of work that remained largely unseen by the public. His will stipulated that his estate, including the entire collection of his works, be given to an American city willing to establish a museum dedicated solely to his art. Denver, Colorado, emerged as the chosen location, and in 2011, the Clyfford Still Museum opened its doors to the public.
Designed by architect Brad Cloepfil, the museum itself is a work of art, providing a fitting setting for Still's monumental canvases. The building's stark and modern design complements the raw power of Still's paintings, creating an immersive environment for visitors to engage with the artist's oeuvre. The museum's commitment to preserving Still's legacy is evident in its comprehensive approach, offering a chronological and thematic exploration of his work.
The Clyfford Still Museum provides an unparalleled opportunity for viewers to trace the evolution of Still's artistic language, from his early representational works to the powerful abstract expressions of his later years. The decision to display the entire body of his work allows for a nuanced understanding of the artist's development and the consistency of his vision.
Legacy and Impact
Clyfford Still's legacy extends beyond the canvas. His withdrawal from the commercial art world and his determination to maintain control over the presentation of his work set a precedent for artists seeking to safeguard their artistic legacies. Still's commitment to authenticity and refusal to compromise his artistic vision left an indelible mark on subsequent generations of artists.
His influence is not confined to the art world alone; Still's life and work offer a profound meditation on the nature of artistic creation, the role of the artist in society, and the enduring power of visual expression. The Clyfford Still Museum, as both a repository of his art and a testament to his convictions, stands as a living tribute to an artist who dared to challenge convention and reshape the landscape of American art. Clyfford Still's odyssey of abstraction continues to captivate and inspire, inviting viewers to embark on a journey through the depths of the human experience as seen through the eyes of a true artistic pioneer.